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struts2.3.24+spring4.1.6+hibernate4.3.11+mysql5.5.25开发环境搭建图文

struts2.3.24 + spring4.1.6 + hibernate4.3.11+ mysql5.5.25开发环境搭建及相关说明。

一、目标

1、搭建传统的ssh开发环境,并成功运行(插入、查询)

2、了解c3p0连接池相关配置

3、了解验证hibernate的二级缓存,并验证

4、了解spring事物配置,并验证

5、了解spring的IOC(依赖注入),将struts2的action对象(bean)交给spring管理,自定义bean等…并验证

6、了解spring aop(面向切面编程),并编写自定义切面函数,验证结果

二、前期准备

开发环境:eclipse for java ee;mysql5.5.25;jdk1.7.0_79;navicat10.1.7(可选);

创建数据库demo:

/*
Navicat MySQL Data Transfer

Source Server : localhost_3306
Source Server Version : 50519
Source Host : localhost:3306
Source Database : demo

Target Server Type : MYSQL
Target Server Version : 50519
File Encoding : 65001

Date: 2016-01-09 23:36:02
*/

SET FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS=0;

-- ----------------------------
-- Table structure for `user`
-- ----------------------------
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `user`;
CREATE TABLE `user` (
 `id` bigint(20) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
 `account` varchar(200) NOT NULL,
 `name` varchar(200) NOT NULL,
 `address` varchar(1000) NOT NULL,
 PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

新建web工程,目录结构如下:

jar包准备,放到WEB-INF的lib目录下(有兴趣的可以用maven管理过程,但是有时候下载jar包很慢…)

相关jar包都可以在下载下来的struts、spring、hibernate中找到,这里给个参考,有些是可以删除的,比如spring mvc部分的jar包:

三、配置web.xml

配置一个struts2的filter,映射所有*.action请求,由StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter对象来处理;

配置context-param参数,指定spring配置文件的路径,<context-param>中的参数可以用ServletContext.getInitParameter(“param-name”)来获取;

配置listener,主要是读取applicationContext.xml配置文件信息,创建bean等初始化工作;

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd" id="WebApp_ID" version="3.0">
 <display-name>SSH</display-name>

 <filter>
 <filter-name>struts2</filter-name>
 <filter-class>org.apache.struts2.dispatcher.ng.filter.StrutsPrepareAndExecuteFilter</filter-class>
 </filter>

 <filter-mapping>
 <filter-name>struts2</filter-name>
 <url-pattern>*.action</url-pattern>
 </filter-mapping>

 <context-param>
 <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
 <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.xml</param-value>
 </context-param>
 <listener>
 <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
 </listener>

 <welcome-file-list>
 <welcome-file>index.jsp</welcome-file>
 </welcome-file-list>

</web-app>

四、配置applicationContext.xml

配置自动扫描ssh包下的@Repostory,@Service等注解,并生成对应的bean;

配置数据源(jdbc连接池为c3p0,可以参考c3p0的详细配置),连接池主要作用是快速提供connection,重复利用,不需要每次销毁创建,需配置用户名、密码、最大连接数、最小连接数、初始连接数等相关参数;

配置sessionFactory(可以参考hibernate的详细配置,这里配置开启二级缓存),主要作用是提供session,执行sql语句;这里我们将会通过HibernateTemplate来对数据库进行操作,方便spring进行实物控制;ps,hibernate配置中还要配置类与数据库表的映射;

配置事务管理器bean为HibernateTransactionManager,并把成员属性sessionFactory初始化为之前配置的sessionFactory bean;

配置事务的传播特性,并配置一个切面引用它,对所有ssh.service包及子包下所有add、delete、update、save方法进行事务控制,还可以配置事务传播行为等参数;

最后是一个自定义aop相关配置,对ssh.aop.AopTest下所有test开头的方法应用自定义切面‘myAop’进行控制,后续会验证结果;

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
 xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
 xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
 xmlns:tx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx"
 xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
 xmlns:aop="http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop"
 xmlns:jdbc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc"
 xsi:schemaLocation="
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/aop/spring-aop.xsd
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/tx/spring-tx-4.1.xsd
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/jdbc/spring-jdbc-4.1.xsd
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
 http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd">
 
 <!-- scans the classpath for annotated components (including @Repostory 
 and @Service that will be auto-registered as Spring beans --> 
 <context:component-scan base-package="ssh" />

 <!--配数据源 -->
 <bean name="dataSource" class="com.mchange.v2.c3p0.ComboPooledDataSource" destroy-method="close">
 <property name="driverClass" value="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver" />
 <property name="jdbcUrl" value="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/demo" />
 <property name="user" value="root" />
 <property name="password" value="root" />
 
 <property name="acquireIncrement" value="1"></property> 
 <property name="initialPoolSize" value="80"></property> 
 <property name="maxIdleTime" value="60"></property> 
 <property name="maxPoolSize" value="80"></property> 
 <property name="minPoolSize" value="30"></property> 
 <property name="acquireRetryDelay" value="1000"></property> 
 <property name="acquireRetryAttempts" value="60"></property> 
 <property name="breakAfterAcquireFailure" value="false"></property>
 <!-- 如出现Too many connections, 注意修改mysql的配置文件my.ini,增大最多连接数配置项,(查看当前连接命令:show processlist) -->
 </bean>
 
 <bean id="sessionFactory" class="org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.LocalSessionFactoryBean">
 <property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource" />

 <property name="hibernateProperties">
 <props>
 <prop key="hibernate.dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect</prop>
 <prop key="hibernate.show_sql">true</prop>
 <prop key="hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto">update</prop>
 <prop key="current_session_context_class">thread</prop>
 <prop key="hibernate.cache.use_second_level_cache">true</prop>
 <prop key="hibernate.cache.region.factory_class">org.hibernate.cache.ehcache.EhCacheRegionFactory</prop>
 <prop key="hibernate.cache.use_query_cache">true</prop>
 <prop key="hibernate.cache.provider_configuration_file_resource_path">ehcache.xml</prop>
 </props>
 </property>
 <property name="mappingLocations"> 
 <list> 
 <value>classpath:ssh/model/User.hbm.xml</value> 
 </list> 
 </property> 
 <!-- 
 <property name="annotatedClasses">
 <list>
 <value>ssh.model.User</value>
 </list>
 </property>
 -->
 </bean>
 
 <!-- 配置事务管理器 -->
 <bean id="transactionManager"
 class="org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.HibernateTransactionManager">
 <property name="sessionFactory" ref="sessionFactory" />
 </bean>
 
 <!-- 事务的传播特性 -->
 <tx:advice id="txadvice" transaction-manager="transactionManager">
 <tx:attributes>
 <tx:method name="add*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="false" rollback-for="java.lang.Exception"/>
 <tx:method name="delete*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="false" rollback-for="java.lang.Exception"/>
 <tx:method name="update*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="false" rollback-for="java.lang.Exception"/>
 <tx:method name="save*" propagation="REQUIRED" read-only="false" rollback-for="java.lang.Exception"/>
 </tx:attributes>
 </tx:advice>
 

 <aop:config>
 <aop:pointcut id="pcMethod" expression="execution(* ssh.service..*.*(..))" />
 <aop:advisor pointcut-ref="pcMethod" advice-ref="txadvice" />
 </aop:config>
 
 <!-- 自定义aop处理 测试 -->
 <bean id="aopTest" class="ssh.aop.AopTest"></bean>
 <bean id="myAop" class="ssh.aop.MyAop"></bean>
 <aop:config proxy-target-class="true">
 <aop:aspect ref="myAop">
 <aop:pointcut id="pcMethodTest" expression="execution(* ssh.aop.AopTest.test*(..))"/>
 <aop:before pointcut-ref="pcMethodTest" method="before"/>
 <aop:after pointcut-ref="pcMethodTest" method="after"/>
 </aop:aspect>
 </aop:config>

 </beans>

五、配置struts.xml

配置struts.objectFactory常数为spring,表示action由通过spring的bean中获取;

配置result type为”json”,也可以配置其它的,这里为了前后端数据交互简便,配置成json格式;

配置两个action,addUser和queryAllUser;

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE struts PUBLIC
 "-//Apache Software Foundation//DTD Struts Configuration 2.3//EN"
 "http://struts.apache.org/dtds/struts-2.3.dtd">

<struts>
 <constant name="struts.objectFactory" value="spring"/>
 <constant name="struts.enable.DynamicMethodInvocation" value="false" />
 <constant name="struts.devMode" value="false" />

 <package name="default" extends="struts-default,json-default">


 <global-results>
 <result type="json">
 <param name="root">json</param>
 <param name="contentType">text/html</param>
 </result>
 </global-results> 

 <action name="addUser" class="userAction" method="addUser">
 <result>.</result>
 </action>
 
 <action name="queryAllUser" class="userAction" method="queryAllUser">
 <result>.</result>
 </action>
 
 </package>


 <!-- Add packages here -->

</struts>

六、编写相关代码

注意事项:

dao继承HibernateDaoSupport类,所有数据库相关操作用hibernateTemplate操作;

给dao层,service层,action添加相应注解,注册为spring的bean;

附代码如下:

UserAction.java

package ssh.action;

import java.io.PrintWriter;
import java.util.List;

import javax.annotation.Resource;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.apache.log4j.Logger;
import org.apache.struts2.ServletActionContext;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;

import ssh.aop.AopTest;
import ssh.model.User;
import ssh.service.UserService;

import com.google.gson.Gson;

@Controller
public class UserAction {
 Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(UserAction.class);
 @Resource
 private UserService userService;
 @Resource
 private AopTest aopTest;
 
 public void addUser(){
 PrintWriter out = null;
 

 
 try{
 HttpServletRequest request = ServletActionContext.getRequest();
 HttpServletResponse response = ServletActionContext.getResponse();
 response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8");
 String account = request.getParameter("account");
 String name = request.getParameter("name");
 String address = request.getParameter("address"); 
 User user = new User();
 user.setAccount(account);
 user.setAddress(address);
 user.setName(name);
 userService.add(user);
 out = response.getWriter();
 out.write(new Gson().toJson("success"));
 }catch(Exception e){
 e.printStackTrace();
 logger.error(e.getMessage());
 if(out != null)
 out.write(new Gson().toJson("fail"));
 }finally{
 out.flush();
 out.close();
 }
 
 }
 
 
 public void queryAllUser(){
 PrintWriter out = null;
 
 aopTest.test1();
 aopTest.test2();
 //logger.error("i");
 try {
 HttpServletResponse response = ServletActionContext.getResponse();
 response.setContentType("text/html;charset=UTF-8");
 
 Gson gson = new Gson();
 List<User> userList= userService.queryAllUser();
 String gsonStr = gson.toJson(userList);
 
 out = response.getWriter();
 out.write(gsonStr);
 } catch (Exception e) {
 e.printStackTrace();
 logger.error(e.getMessage());
 if(out != null)
 out.write(new Gson().toJson("fail"));
 }finally{
 out.flush();
 out.close();
 }
 }
}

AopTest.java

package ssh.aop;



public class AopTest {

 
 public void test1(){
 System.out.println("AopTest test1 method is running~");
 }
 
 public void test2(){
 System.out.println("AopTest test2 method is running~");
 }
}

MyAop.java

package ssh.aop;


public class MyAop {

 public void before(){
 System.out.println("befor~");
 }
 
 public void after(){
 System.out.println("after~");
 }
}

BaseDao.java

package ssh.dao.base;

import javax.annotation.Resource;

import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.support.HibernateDaoSupport;


public class BaseDao extends HibernateDaoSupport{
 @Resource 
 public void setMySessionFactory(SessionFactory sessionFactory){ 
 this.setSessionFactory(sessionFactory); 
 }
}

UserDao.java

package ssh.dao;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

import org.springframework.orm.hibernate4.HibernateTemplate;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;

import ssh.dao.base.BaseDao;
import ssh.model.User;

@Repository
public class UserDao extends BaseDao{
 public void add(User user){
 this.getHibernateTemplate().save(user);
 }
 
 @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
 public List<User> queryAllUser(){
 
 List<User> users = new ArrayList<User>();
 HibernateTemplate hibernateTemplate = this.getHibernateTemplate();
 
 hibernateTemplate.setCacheQueries(true);
 users = (List<User>) hibernateTemplate.find("from User");
 hibernateTemplate.setCacheQueries(false);

 return users;
 }

}

User.java

package ssh.model;

import java.io.Serializable;



public class User implements Serializable{

 /**
 * 
 */
 private static final long serialVersionUID = -6190571611246371934L;
 private Long id;
 private String account;
 private String name;
 private String address;
 public String getAccount() {
 return account;
 }
 public String getName() {
 return name;
 }
 public String getAddress() {
 return address;
 }
 public void setAccount(String account) {
 this.account = account;
 }
 public void setName(String name) {
 this.name = name;
 }
 public void setAddress(String address) {
 this.address = address;
 }
 /**
 * @return the id
 */
 public Long getId() {
 return id;
 }
 /**
 * @param id the id to set
 */
 public void setId(Long id) {
 this.id = id;
 }
}

User.hbm.xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!--
 ~ Hibernate, Relational Persistence for Idiomatic Java
 ~
 ~ Copyright (c) 2010, Red Hat Inc. or third-party contributors as
 ~ indicated by the @author tags or express copyright attribution
 ~ statements applied by the authors. All third-party contributions are
 ~ distributed under license by Red Hat Inc.
 ~
 ~ This copyrighted material is made available to anyone wishing to use, modify,
 ~ copy, or redistribute it subject to the terms and conditions of the GNU
 ~ Lesser General Public License, as published by the Free Software Foundation.
 ~
 ~ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 ~ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
 ~ or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License
 ~ for more details.
 ~
 ~ You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
 ~ along with this distribution; if not, write to:
 ~ Free Software Foundation, Inc.
 ~ 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor
 ~ Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
 -->

<!DOCTYPE hibernate-mapping PUBLIC
 "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Mapping DTD 3.0//EN"
 "http://www.hibernate.org/dtd/hibernate-mapping-3.0.dtd">

<hibernate-mapping package="ssh.model">

 <class name="User" table="user">
 <cache usage="read-write"/>
 <id name="id" column="id">
 <generator class="increment"/>
 </id>
 <property name="account" type="java.lang.String" column="account"/>
 <property name="name" type="java.lang.String" column="name"/>
 <property name="address" type="java.lang.String" column="address"/>
 </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

UserService.java

package ssh.service;

import java.util.List;

import javax.annotation.Resource;

import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import ssh.dao.UserDao;
import ssh.model.User;


@Service
public class UserService {
 @Resource
 private UserDao userDao = new UserDao();
 public List<User> queryAllUser(){
 return userDao.queryAllUser();
 
 }
 public void add(User user){
 userDao.add(user);
 }
}

index.jsp(记得添加jquery库)

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"
 pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<title>Insert title here</title>
<style>
.mt20{
 margin-top: 20px;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<div style="text-align: center;">
 <div class="mt20"><label>账号:</label><input id="account" type="text"/></div>
 <div class="mt20"><label>姓名:</label><input id="name" type="text"/></div>
 <div class="mt20"><label>地址:</label><input id="address" type="text"/></div>
 <div class="mt20"><button id="addUser" >添加</button></div>
</div>

<h3>用户列表:</h3>
<ul id="userList">
</ul>

<script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery-1.11.1.min.js"></script>

<script>
 $(function() {
 $.ajax({
 url : 'queryAllUser.action',
 type : 'post',
 dataType : 'json',
 success : function(data) {
 try {
 for(var i = 0; i < data.length; i++){
 $("#userList").append("<li><span style='color:red'>id="+data[i].id+"</span>,account="+data[i].account+",name="+data[i].name+",address="+data[i].address+"</li>");
 }
 } catch (e) {};
 
 }
 ,
 error : function(e) {
 alert("sys error");
 }
 });
 
 $("#addUser").on("click", function() {
 var account = $("#account").val();
 var name = $("#name").val();
 var address = $("#address").val();
 $.ajax({
 url : 'addUser.action',
 type : 'post',
 dataType : 'json',
 data : {
 account : account,
 name : name,
 address : address
 },
 success : function(data) {
 try {
 
 $("#userList").append("<li>account="+account+",name="+name+",address="+address+"</li>");
 alert("添加成功");
 } catch (e) {

 }
 },
 error : function(e) {
 alert("sys error");
 }
 });

 });
 });
</script>
</body>
</html>

七、验证结果

回到开头,开始熟悉了解相关技术,并验证结果

1、搭建传统的ssh开发环境,并成功运行(插入、查询)

如下图:查询及添加用户成功;

2、了解c3p0连接池相关配置

数据库连接是一种昂贵的资源,开启及关闭比较消耗性能,因此可以用连接池来管理,初始化若干个连接,重复使用,而不是重复创建关闭,有点类似线程池;

配置如下,要根据实际项目情况合理配置最小最大连接数,详细的各个参数含义可以参考链接

另外要验证连接数相关配置很简单,可以自己写个程序验证,比如当配置最大连接数为10的时候,可以写个程序验证,当打开10个connection后,第11个connection会一直处于等待状态,获取不到;所以要根据情况合理配置连接数,否则有可能会影响应用性能;

<!--配数据源 -->
 <bean name="dataSource" class="com.mchange.v2.c3p0.ComboPooledDataSource" destroy-method="close">
 <property name="driverClass" value="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver" />
 <property name="jdbcUrl" value="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/demo" />
 <property name="user" value="root" />
 <property name="password" value="root" />
 
 <property name="acquireIncrement" value="1"></property> 
 <property name="initialPoolSize" value="80"></property> 
 <property name="maxIdleTime" value="60"></property> 
 <property name="maxPoolSize" value="80"></property> 
 <property name="minPoolSize" value="30"></property> 
 <property name="acquireRetryDelay" value="1000"></property> 
 <property name="acquireRetryAttempts" value="60"></property> 
 <property name="breakAfterAcquireFailure" value="false"></property>
 <!-- 如出现Too many connections, 注意修改mysql的配置文件my.ini,增大最多连接数配置项,(查看当前连接命令:show processlist) -->
 </bean>

3、了解验证hibernate的二级缓存,并验证

hibernate的一级缓存是指session范围的缓存,默认开启,二级缓存是sessionFactory范围缓存,在配置sessionFactory的时候,我们已经配置二级缓存为ehcache,接下来验证效果,查询user操作,发现第一次查询会操作数据库,打印sql语句,刷新页面后,发现查询成功且没打印sql语句,如下图,可见二级缓存工作OK;

4、了解spring事物配置,并验证

所谓事务控制,原理都一样,就是要保证原子性、一致性、隔离性、持久性,jdbc编程的时候,都是自己控制,通过set autocommit=false设置成不自动提交,然后开始写具体的数据库操作,发生异常的时候rollback,否则commit;其实spring对事物的控制原理也差不多,加了一些封装,配置等,更加方便而已,比如可以在service层不同方法进行控制等;

验证的话很简单,在service层某个方法(注意方法名要符合spring配置文件中配置的规则)内写两个插入user的操作,在中间抛出一个异常,然后执行,如果发现第一个user插入成功,说明事务控制失效,否则ok;

5、了解spring的IOC(依赖注入),将struts2的action对象(bean)交给spring管理,自定义bean等…并验证

仔细观察的话,在配置applicationContext.xml文件的过程中,主要工作都是在配置bean相关信息,这些bean都是事先创建好的,其实所谓的bean就是对象;

之所以把对象的创建交给spring容器,目的是为了解耦;

另外在用struts的时候,spring把action注册为bean,默认是单例的,访问的时候并不是每次都new出一个action,在并发访问的时候,会有风险;

不过,可以通过scope=”prototype”,把action配置成多例;ps:struts2中的action默认是多例;

注意:applicationContext.xml配置的bean和自定义注解的bean都是可以在程序运行的过程中直接获取的,通过@Resource等方式,这个很好验证,写个小程序即可;

6、了解spring aop(面向切面编程),并编写自定义切面函数,验证结果

切面编程这种形式很多地方都用了该思想,什么过滤器,拦截器,事务控制等等…

其原理还是java的反射和动态代理,在方法执行前后加以控制,加入自己要执行的代码;

小例子中加了个切面,在方法执行前后打印before和after字符串,如下图,工作正常,代码参考前面部分:

<!-- 自定义aop处理 测试 -->
 <bean id="aopTest" class="ssh.aop.AopTest"></bean>
 <bean id="myAop" class="ssh.aop.MyAop"></bean>
 <aop:config proxy-target-class="true">
 <aop:aspect ref="myAop">
 <aop:pointcut id="pcMethodTest" expression="execution(* ssh.aop.AopTest.test*(..))"/>
 <aop:before pointcut-ref="pcMethodTest" method="before"/>
 <aop:after pointcut-ref="pcMethodTest" method="after"/>
 </aop:aspect>
 </aop:config>

@author   风一样的码农

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