H5W3
当前位置:H5W3 > 其他技术问题 > 正文

Java资源缓存 之 LruCache

例如对 网络加载图片进行缓存 :

  // 得到 应用程序 被分配的最大的内存
    int maxMemory=(int) Runtime.getRuntime().maxMemory();
    // 取处内存的 1/5 用来当 缓存 大小
    int cachSize=maxMemory/5;
    // 实例化 LruCache
    lruCache=new lruCache<String, Bitmap>(cachSize){
      //内部方法sizeOf设置每一张图片的缓存大小
      protected int sizeOf(String key, Bitmap value) {
        //在每次存入缓存时调用,告诉系统这张缓存图片有多大
        // 相当于 为每次 要缓存的 资源 分配 大小空间
        return value.getByteCount();
      }
    };
     

上面的 代码 一般 放在初始化的 方法 里面

其实 可以将 LurCache 类 理解 为 Map 类 map 有 put和 get 方法

接下去就调用put 和 get 方法 进行需要缓存资源的存取

LurCache 的 add :

public void putBitmapToCache(String url,Bitmap bitmap){
    if (getBitmapfromCache(url)==null) {//判断当前缓存是否存在
      lruCache.put(url, bitmap);
    }
  }
LurCache 的 get:

public Bitmap getBitmapfromCache(String url){
    return lruCache.get(url);//可将lruCache看成map
  }

调用上面的 add 和 get 方法 就可以对资源进行缓存的 ,还是挺简单的,

但要注意一点 LruCache lruCache=new LruCache<String, Bitmap>(cachSize) 只能被new 一次 ,不然不同对象就不同的缓存了

附上Android的Lrucache类

package android.util; 
 
import java.util.LinkedHashMap; 
import java.util.Map; 
 
/** 
 * A cache that holds strong references to a limited number of values. Each time 
 * a value is accessed, it is moved to the head of a queue. When a value is 
 * added to a full cache, the value at the end of that queue is evicted and may 
 * become eligible for garbage collection. 
 * Cache保存一个强引用来限制内容数量,每当Item被访问的时候,此Item就会移动到队列的头部。
 * 当cache已满的时候加入新的item时,在队列尾部的item会被回收。
 * <p>If your cached values hold resources that need to be explicitly released, 
 * override {@link #entryRemoved}. 
 * 如果你cache的某个值需要明确释放,重写entryRemoved()
 * <p>If a cache miss should be computed on demand for the corresponding keys, 
 * override {@link #create}. This simplifies the calling code, allowing it to 
 * assume a value will always be returned, even when there's a cache miss. 
 * 如果key相对应的item丢掉啦,重写create().这简化了调用代码,即使丢失了也总会返回。
 * <p>By default, the cache size is measured in the number of entries. Override 
 * {@link #sizeOf} to size the cache in different units. For example, this cache 
 * is limited to 4MiB of bitmaps: 默认cache大小是测量的item的数量,重写sizeof计算不同item的
 * 大小。
 * <pre>  {@code 
 *  int cacheSize = 4 * 1024 * 1024; // 4MiB 
 *  LruCache<String, Bitmap> bitmapCache = new LruCache<String, Bitmap>(cacheSize) { 
 *    protected int sizeOf(String key, Bitmap value) { 
 *      return value.getByteCount(); 
 *    } 
 *  }}</pre> 
 * 
 * <p>This class is thread-safe. Perform multiple cache operations atomically by 
 * synchronizing on the cache: <pre>  {@code 
 *  synchronized (cache) { 
 *   if (cache.get(key) == null) { 
 *     cache.put(key, value); 
 *   } 
 *  }}</pre> 
 * 
 * <p>This class does not allow null to be used as a key or value. A return 
 * value of null from {@link #get}, {@link #put} or {@link #remove} is 
 * unambiguous: the key was not in the cache.
 * 不允许key或者value为null
 * 当get(),put(),remove()返回值为null时,key相应的项不在cache中
 */ 
public class LruCache<K, V> { 
  private final LinkedHashMap<K, V> map; 
 
  /** Size of this cache in units. Not necessarily the number of elements. */ 
  private int size; //已经存储的大小
  private int maxSize; //规定的最大存储空间
 
  private int putCount; //put的次数
  private int createCount; //create的次数
  private int evictionCount; //回收的次数
  private int hitCount; //命中的次数
  private int missCount; //丢失的次数
 
  /** 
   * @param maxSize for caches that do not override {@link #sizeOf}, this is 
   *   the maximum number of entries in the cache. For all other caches, 
   *   this is the maximum sum of the sizes of the entries in this cache. 
   */ 
  public LruCache(int maxSize) { 
    if (maxSize <= 0) { 
      throw new IllegalArgumentException("maxSize <= 0"); 
    } 
    this.maxSize = maxSize; 
    this.map = new LinkedHashMap<K, V>(0, 0.75f, true); 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Returns the value for {@code key} if it exists in the cache or can be 
   * created by {@code #create}. If a value was returned, it is moved to the 
   * head of the queue. This returns null if a value is not cached and cannot 
   * be created. 通过key返回相应的item,或者创建返回相应的item。相应的item会移动到队列的头部,
   * 如果item的value没有被cache或者不能被创建,则返回null。
   */ 
  public final V get(K key) { 
    if (key == null) { 
      throw new NullPointerException("key == null"); 
    } 
 
    V mapValue; 
    synchronized (this) { 
      mapValue = map.get(key); 
      if (mapValue != null) { 
        hitCount++; //命中
        return mapValue; 
      } 
      missCount++; //丢失
    } 
 
    /* 
     * Attempt to create a value. This may take a long time, and the map 
     * may be different when create() returns. If a conflicting value was 
     * added to the map while create() was working, we leave that value in 
     * the map and release the created value. 
     * 如果丢失了就试图创建一个item
     */ 
 
    V createdValue = create(key); 
    if (createdValue == null) { 
      return null; 
    } 
 
    synchronized (this) { 
      createCount++;//创建++ 
      mapValue = map.put(key, createdValue); 
 
      if (mapValue != null) { 
        // There was a conflict so undo that last put 
        //如果前面存在oldValue,那么撤销put() 
        map.put(key, mapValue); 
      } else { 
        size += safeSizeOf(key, createdValue); 
      } 
    } 
 
    if (mapValue != null) { 
      entryRemoved(false, key, createdValue, mapValue); 
      return mapValue; 
    } else { 
      trimToSize(maxSize); 
      return createdValue; 
    } 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Caches {@code value} for {@code key}. The value is moved to the head of 
   * the queue. 
   * 
   * @return the previous value mapped by {@code key}. 
   */ 
  public final V put(K key, V value) { 
    if (key == null || value == null) { 
      throw new NullPointerException("key == null || value == null"); 
    } 
 
    V previous; 
    synchronized (this) { 
      putCount++; 
      size += safeSizeOf(key, value); 
      previous = map.put(key, value); 
      if (previous != null) { //返回的先前的value值
        size -= safeSizeOf(key, previous); 
      } 
    } 
 
    if (previous != null) { 
      entryRemoved(false, key, previous, value); 
    } 
 
    trimToSize(maxSize); 
    return previous; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * @param maxSize the maximum size of the cache before returning. May be -1 
   *   to evict even 0-sized elements. 
   * 清空cache空间
   */ 
  private void trimToSize(int maxSize) { 
    while (true) { 
      K key; 
      V value; 
      synchronized (this) { 
        if (size < 0 || (map.isEmpty() && size != 0)) { 
          throw new IllegalStateException(getClass().getName() 
              + ".sizeOf() is reporting inconsistent results!"); 
        } 
 
        if (size <= maxSize) { 
          break; 
        } 
 
        Map.Entry<K, V> toEvict = map.eldest(); 
        if (toEvict == null) { 
          break; 
        } 
 
        key = toEvict.getKey(); 
        value = toEvict.getValue(); 
        map.remove(key); 
        size -= safeSizeOf(key, value); 
        evictionCount++; 
      } 
 
      entryRemoved(true, key, value, null); 
    } 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Removes the entry for {@code key} if it exists. 
   * 删除key相应的cache项,返回相应的value
   * @return the previous value mapped by {@code key}. 
   */ 
  public final V remove(K key) { 
    if (key == null) { 
      throw new NullPointerException("key == null"); 
    } 
 
    V previous; 
    synchronized (this) { 
      previous = map.remove(key); 
      if (previous != null) { 
        size -= safeSizeOf(key, previous); 
      } 
    } 
 
    if (previous != null) { 
      entryRemoved(false, key, previous, null); 
    } 
 
    return previous; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Called for entries that have been evicted or removed. This method is 
   * invoked when a value is evicted to make space, removed by a call to 
   * {@link #remove}, or replaced by a call to {@link #put}. The default 
   * implementation does nothing. 
   * 当item被回收或者删掉时调用。改方法当value被回收释放存储空间时被remove调用,
   * 或者替换item值时put调用,默认实现什么都没做。
   * <p>The method is called without synchronization: other threads may 
   * access the cache while this method is executing. 
   * 
   * @param evicted true if the entry is being removed to make space, false 
   *   if the removal was caused by a {@link #put} or {@link #remove}. 
   * true---为释放空间被删除;false---put或remove导致
   * @param newValue the new value for {@code key}, if it exists. If non-null, 
   *   this removal was caused by a {@link #put}. Otherwise it was caused by 
   *   an eviction or a {@link #remove}. 
   */ 
  protected void entryRemoved(boolean evicted, K key, V oldValue, V newValue) {} 
 
  /** 
   * Called after a cache miss to compute a value for the corresponding key. 
   * Returns the computed value or null if no value can be computed. The 
   * default implementation returns null. 
   * 当某Item丢失时会调用到,返回计算的相应的value或者null
   * <p>The method is called without synchronization: other threads may 
   * access the cache while this method is executing. 
   * 
   * <p>If a value for {@code key} exists in the cache when this method 
   * returns, the created value will be released with {@link #entryRemoved} 
   * and discarded. This can occur when multiple threads request the same key 
   * at the same time (causing multiple values to be created), or when one 
   * thread calls {@link #put} while another is creating a value for the same 
   * key. 
   */ 
  protected V create(K key) { 
    return null; 
  } 
 
  private int safeSizeOf(K key, V value) { 
    int result = sizeOf(key, value); 
    if (result < 0) { 
      throw new IllegalStateException("Negative size: " + key + "=" + value); 
    } 
    return result; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Returns the size of the entry for {@code key} and {@code value} in 
   * user-defined units. The default implementation returns 1 so that size 
   * is the number of entries and max size is the maximum number of entries. 
   * 返回用户定义的item的大小,默认返回1代表item的数量,最大size就是最大item值
   * <p>An entry's size must not change while it is in the cache. 
   */ 
  protected int sizeOf(K key, V value) { 
    return 1; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Clear the cache, calling {@link #entryRemoved} on each removed entry. 
   * 清空cacke
   */ 
  public final void evictAll() { 
    trimToSize(-1); // -1 will evict 0-sized elements 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * For caches that do not override {@link #sizeOf}, this returns the number 
   * of entries in the cache. For all other caches, this returns the sum of 
   * the sizes of the entries in this cache. 
   */ 
  public synchronized final int size() { 
    return size; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * For caches that do not override {@link #sizeOf}, this returns the maximum 
   * number of entries in the cache. For all other caches, this returns the 
   * maximum sum of the sizes of the entries in this cache. 
   */ 
  public synchronized final int maxSize() { 
    return maxSize; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Returns the number of times {@link #get} returned a value that was 
   * already present in the cache. 
   */ 
  public synchronized final int hitCount() { 
    return hitCount; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Returns the number of times {@link #get} returned null or required a new 
   * value to be created. 
   */ 
  public synchronized final int missCount() { 
    return missCount; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Returns the number of times {@link #create(Object)} returned a value. 
   */ 
  public synchronized final int createCount() { 
    return createCount; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Returns the number of times {@link #put} was called. 
   */ 
  public synchronized final int putCount() { 
    return putCount; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Returns the number of values that have been evicted. 
   * 返回被回收的数量
   */ 
  public synchronized final int evictionCount() { 
    return evictionCount; 
  } 
 
  /** 
   * Returns a copy of the current contents of the cache, ordered from least 
   * recently accessed to most recently accessed. 返回当前cache的副本,从最近最少访问到最多访问
   */ 
  public synchronized final Map<K, V> snapshot() { 
    return new LinkedHashMap<K, V>(map); 
  } 
 
  @Override public synchronized final String toString() { 
    int accesses = hitCount + missCount; 
    int hitPercent = accesses != 0 ? (100 * hitCount / accesses) : 0; 
    return String.format("LruCache[maxSize=%d,hits=%d,misses=%d,hitRate=%d%%]", 
        maxSize, hitCount, missCount, hitPercent); 
  } 
}

本文地址:H5W3 » Java资源缓存 之 LruCache

评论 0

  • 昵称 (必填)
  • 邮箱 (必填)
  • 网址