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CentOS 8修改系统语音学为日文版且立即时效

CentOS 8默认安装时候,如果选成英文,看文档的时候有可能会费劲。

有的时候需要man或者help的时候,看中文文档来的快。

locale命令

[root@C8-3 ~]# locale --help
[root@C8-3 ~]# locale --help
Usage: locale [OPTION...] NAME
or:  locale [OPTION...] [-a|-m]
Get locale-specific information.
System information:
-a, --all-locales          Write names of available locales
-m, --charmaps             Write names of available charmaps
Modify output format:
-c, --category-name        Write names of selected categories
-k, --keyword-name         Write names of selected keywords
-v, --verbose              Print more information
-?, --help                 Give this help list
--usage                Give a short usage message
-V, --version              Print program version
For bug reporting instructions, please see:
<http://www.gnu.org/software/libc/bugs.html>.

locale命令实际显示的是/etc/locale.conf中设定的内容

[root@C8-3 ~]# cat /etc/locale.conf
LANG=en_US.utf8
[root@C8-3 ~]# . /etc/locale.conf
[root@C8-3 ~]# locale
LANG=en_US.utf8
LC_CTYPE="en_US.utf8"
LC_NUMERIC="en_US.utf8"
LC_TIME="en_US.utf8"
LC_COLLATE="en_US.utf8"
LC_MONETARY="en_US.utf8"
LC_MESSAGES="en_US.utf8"
LC_PAPER="en_US.utf8"
LC_NAME="en_US.utf8"
LC_ADDRESS="en_US.utf8"
LC_TELEPHONE="en_US.utf8"
LC_MEASUREMENT="en_US.utf8"
LC_IDENTIFICATION="en_US.utf8"
LC_ALL=

查看系统中已有支持的语言

[root@C8-3 ~]# locale -a
C
C.utf8
en_AG
en_AU
en_AU.utf8
en_BW
en_BW.utf8
en_CA
en_CA.utf8
en_DK
en_DK.utf8
en_GB
en_GB.iso885915
en_GB.utf8
en_HK
en_HK.utf8
en_IE
en_IE@euro
en_IE.utf8
en_IL
en_IN
en_NG
en_NZ
en_NZ.utf8
en_PH
en_PH.utf8
en_SC.utf8
en_SG
en_SG.utf8
en_US
en_US.iso885915
en_US.utf8
en_ZA
en_ZA.utf8
en_ZM
en_ZW
en_ZW.utf8
POSIX

发现没有中文

安装中文语言支持扩展包

[root@C8-3 ~]# yum -y install langpacks-zh_CN
Repository AppStream is listed more than once in the configuration
Repository extras is listed more than once in the configuration
Repository PowerTools is listed more than once in the configuration
Repository centosplus is listed more than once in the configuration
Last metadata expiration check: -1 day, 11:03:52 ago on Thu Nov  5 14:36:43 2020.
Dependencies resolved.
===============================================================================
Package                 Architecture Version            Repository       Size
===============================================================================
Installing:
langpacks-zh_CN         noarch       1.0-12.el8         AppStream       9.6 k
Installing weak dependencies:
glibc-langpack-zh       x86_64       2.28-101.el8       base            2.1 M
Transaction Summary
===============================================================================
Install  2 Packages
Total download size: 2.2 M
Installed size: 15 M
Downloading Packages:
(1/2): langpacks-zh_CN-1.0-12.el8.noarch.rpm   1.1 kB/s | 9.6 kB     00:08
(2/2): glibc-langpack-zh-2.28-101.el8.x86_64.r 175 kB/s | 2.1 MB     00:12
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                          176 kB/s | 2.2 MB     00:12
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
Preparing        :                                                       1/1
Installing       : glibc-langpack-zh-2.28-101.el8.x86_64                 1/2
Installing       : langpacks-zh_CN-1.0-12.el8.noarch                     2/2
Running scriptlet: langpacks-zh_CN-1.0-12.el8.noarch                     2/2
Verifying        : langpacks-zh_CN-1.0-12.el8.noarch                     1/2
Verifying        : glibc-langpack-zh-2.28-101.el8.x86_64                 2/2
Installed:
langpacks-zh_CN-1.0-12.el8.noarch    glibc-langpack-zh-2.28-101.el8.x86_64
Complete!

再次查看,发现有中文了

[root@C8-3 ~]# locale -a
C
C.utf8
en_AG
en_AU
en_AU.utf8
en_BW
en_BW.utf8
en_CA
en_CA.utf8
en_DK
en_DK.utf8
en_GB
en_GB.iso885915
en_GB.utf8
en_HK
en_HK.utf8
en_IE
en_IE@euro
en_IE.utf8
en_IL
en_IN
en_NG
en_NZ
en_NZ.utf8
en_PH
en_PH.utf8
en_SC.utf8
en_SG
en_SG.utf8
en_US
en_US.iso885915
en_US.utf8
en_ZA
en_ZA.utf8
en_ZM
en_ZW
en_ZW.utf8
POSIX
zh_CN
zh_CN.gb18030
zh_CN.gbk
zh_CN.utf8
zh_HK
zh_HK.utf8
zh_SG
zh_SG.gbk
zh_SG.utf8
zh_TW
zh_TW.euctw
zh_TW.utf8

使用localectl命令设定系统语言为中文

查看localectl是否存在

[root@C8-3 ~]# type localectl
localectl is hashed (/usr/bin/localectl)

输入localectl命令并用tab键补全,查看可以跟的参数

[root@C8-3 ~]# localectl
list-keymaps              list-x11-keymap-options   set-x11-keymap
list-locales              list-x11-keymap-variants  status
list-x11-keymap-layouts   set-keymap
list-x11-keymap-models    set-locale

选择set-locale参数 ,tab补全 ,使用LANG=参数查看当前系统支持的语言,相当于locale -a。

[root@C8-3 ~]# localectl set-locale LANG=
C.utf8           en_GB.utf8       en_PH.utf8       zh_CN
en_AG            en_HK            en_SC.utf8       zh_CN.gb18030
en_AU            en_HK.utf8       en_SG            zh_CN.gbk
en_AU.utf8       en_IE            en_SG.utf8       zh_CN.utf8
en_BW            en_IE@euro       en_US            zh_HK
en_BW.utf8       en_IE.utf8       en_US.iso885915  zh_HK.utf8
en_CA            en_IL            en_US.utf8       zh_SG
en_CA.utf8       en_IN            en_ZA            zh_SG.gbk
en_DK            en_NG            en_ZA.utf8       zh_SG.utf8
en_DK.utf8       en_NZ            en_ZM            zh_TW
en_GB            en_NZ.utf8       en_ZW            zh_TW.euctw
en_GB.iso885915  en_PH            en_ZW.utf8       zh_TW.utf8

设定系统语言为zh_CN.utf8

[root@C8-3 ~]# localectl set-locale LANG=zh_CN.utf8

查看当前系统语言

[root@C8-3 ~]# locale
LANG=en_US.utf8
LC_CTYPE="en_US.utf8"
LC_NUMERIC="en_US.utf8"
LC_TIME="en_US.utf8"
LC_COLLATE="en_US.utf8"
LC_MONETARY="en_US.utf8"
LC_MESSAGES="en_US.utf8"
LC_PAPER="en_US.utf8"
LC_NAME="en_US.utf8"
LC_ADDRESS="en_US.utf8"
LC_TELEPHONE="en_US.utf8"
LC_MEASUREMENT="en_US.utf8"
LC_IDENTIFICATION="en_US.utf8"
LC_ALL=

发现并没有生效!

[root@C8-3 ~]# type locale
locale is hashed (/usr/bin/locale)

因为重启才会重新加载配置文件

不重启马上生效的办法

手动加载配置文件,使配置文件被加载到内存中去

[root@C8-3 ~]# . /etc/locale.conf
[root@C8-3 ~]# type locale
locale 已被录入哈希表 (/usr/bin/locale)

虽然查看帮助使用中文比较方便,但鉴于所有命令都是英文的,我们还是要习惯于看英文的帮助文档,遇到看不懂的地方再使用此方法修改系统语言。系统语言为全局变量,改完记得再改回去

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