Django comes with a user authentication system. It handles user accounts, groups, permissions and cookie-based user sessions. This section of the documentation explains how the default implementation works out of the box, as well as how to extend and customize it to suit your project's needs.


The Django authentication system handles both authentication and authorization. Briefly, authentication verifies a user is who they claim to be, and authorization determines what an authenticated user is allowed to do. Here the term authentication is used to refer to both tasks.


  • Users
  • Permissions: Binary (yes/no) flags designating whether a user may perform a certain task.
  • Groups: A generic way of applying labels and permissions to more than one user.
  • A configurable password hashing system
  • Forms and view tools for logging in users, or restricting content
  • A pluggable backend system

The authentication system in Django aims to be very generic and doesn't provide some features commonly found in web authentication systems. Solutions for some of these common problems have been implemented in third-party packages:

  • 密码强度检查
  • 限制登录尝试
  • 针对第三方的身份验证(例如OAuth)


Authentication support is bundled as a Django contrib module in django.contrib.auth. By default, the required configuration is already included in the generated by django-admin startproject, these consist of two items listed in your INSTALLED_APPS setting:

  1. 'django.contrib.auth' contains the core of the authentication framework, and its default models.
  2. 'django.contrib.contenttypes' is the Django content type system, which allows permissions to be associated with models you create.

and these items in your MIDDLEWARE setting:

  1. SessionMiddleware manages sessions across requests.
  2. AuthenticationMiddleware associates users with requests using sessions.

有了这些设置,运行命令 migrate 为auth相关模型创建必要的数据表,并为已安装应用中定义的任何模型创建许可。