【JS】从零搭建 React 开发环境

前言

大概在 2019 年,自己搭建 React开发环境的想法萌芽,到目前为止,公司的很多项目上,也在使用中,比较稳定。为什么要自己造轮子?起初是因为自己并不满意市面上的脚手架。另外,造轮子对于自己也有一些技术上的帮助,学别人二次封装的东西,不如直接使用底层的库,这样也有助于自己系统的学习一遍知识,废话不多说,直接进入正文,如何搭建自己的开发环境。

初始化

创建文件夹并进入:

$ mkdir tristana && cd tristana

初始化 package.json

$ npm init

安装 Webpack

$ npm install webpack webpack-cli --save-dev

创建以下目录结构、文件和内容:

project

tristana

|- package.json

|- /dist

|- index.html

|- /script

|- webpack.config.js

|- index.html

|- /src

|- index.js

src/index.js

document.getElementById("root").append("React");

index.html && dist/index.html

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<meta charset="utf-8" />

<title>tristana</title>

</head>

<body>

<script></script>

<div id="root"></div>

</body>

</html>

script/webpack.config.js

module.exports = {

mode: "development",

entry: "./src/index.js",

};

package.json

{

// ...

"scripts": {

"build": "webpack --mode=development --config script/webpack.config.js"

},

}

然后根目录终端输入:npm run build

在浏览器中打开 dist 目录下的 index.html,如果一切正常,你应该能看到以下文本:'React'

index.html 目前放在 dist 目录下,但它是手动创建的,下面会教你如何生成 index.html 而非手动编辑它。

Webpack 核心功能

Babel

$ npm install @babel/cli @babel/core babel-loader @babel/preset-env --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

module.exports = {

// ...

module: {

rules: [

{

test: /\.(js|jsx)$/,

loader: "babel-loader",

exclude: /node_modules/,

},

],

},

};

.babelrc

在根目录下添加 .babelrc 文件:

{

"presets": ["@babel/preset-env", "@babel/preset-react"]

}

样式

$ npm install style-loader css-loader less less-loader --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

module.exports = {

// ...

module: {

rules: [

{

test: /\.(css|less)$/,

use: [

{

loader: "style-loader",

},

{

loader: "css-loader",

options: {

importLoaders: 1,

},

},

{

loader: "less-loader",

lessOptions: {

javascriptEnabled: true,

},

},

],

},

],

},

};

图片字体

$ npm install file-loader --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

module.exports = {

// ...

module: {

rules: [

{

test: /\.(png|svg|jpg|gif|jpeg)$/,

loader: 'file-loader'

},

{

test: /\.(woff|woff2|eot|ttf|otf)$/,

loader: 'file-loader'

}

],

},

};

HTML

$ npm install html-webpack-plugin --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

const HtmlWebpackPlugin = require('html-webpack-plugin');

module.exports = {

// ...

plugins: {

html: new HtmlWebpackPlugin({

title: 'tristana',

template: 'public/index.html'

}),

}

};

index.html

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<meta charset="utf-8" />

<title>tristana</title>

</head>

<body>

<div id="root"></div>

</body>

</html>

开发服务

$ npm install webpack-dev-server --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

const path = require("path");

const HtmlWebpackPlugin = require('html-webpack-plugin');

module.exports = {

// ...

devServer: {

contentBase: path.resolve(__dirname, "dist"),

hot: true,

historyApiFallback: true,

compress: true,

},

};

package.json

{

// ...

"scripts": {

"start": "webpack serve --mode=development --config script/webpack.config.js"

},

// ...

}

清理 dist

$ npm install clean-webpack-plugin --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

const { CleanWebpackPlugin } = require('clean-webpack-plugin');

module.exports = {

// ...

plugins: {

new CleanWebpackPlugin()

}

};

Tips

由于 webpack 使用的是^5.21.2 版本,在使用该插件时,会提示clean-webpack-plugin: options.output.path not defined. Plugin disabled...,暂时还未解决。

环境变量

$ npm install cross-env --save-dev

package.json

{

// ...

"scripts": {

"start": "cross-env ENV_LWD=development webpack serve --mode=development --config script/webpack.config.js",

"build": "cross-env ENV_LWD=production webpack --mode=production --config script/webpack.config.js"

},

// ...

}

.jsx 文件

安装依赖

$ npm install @babel/preset-react react react-dom --save-dev

.babelrc

{

"presets": ["@babel/preset-env", "@babel/preset-react"]

}

src/App.jsx

src 目录下,新增 App.jsx 文件:

import React, { Component } from "react";

class App extends Component {

render() {

return (

<div>

<h1> Hello, World! </h1>

</div>

);

}

}

export default App;

src/index.js

import React from "react";

import ReactDOM from "react-dom";

import App from "./App.jsx";

ReactDOM.render(<App />, document.getElementById("root"));

React Router

安装依赖

$ npm install react-router history --save

src/index.js

import React from "react";

import ReactDOM from "react-dom";

import { Router, Route, Link } from "react-router";

import { createBrowserHistory } from "history";

import App from "./App.jsx";

const About = () => {

return <>About</>;

};

ReactDOM.render(

<Router history={createBrowserHistory()}>

<Route path="/" component={App} />

<Route path="/about" component={About} />

</Router>,

document.getElementById("root")

);

MobX

安装依赖

$ npm install mobx mobx-react babel-preset-mobx --save

.babelrc

{

"presets": ["@babel/preset-env", "@babel/preset-react", "mobx"]

}

src/store.js

src 目录下新建 store.js

import { observable, action, makeObservable } from "mobx";

class Store {

constructor() {

makeObservable(this);

}

@observable

count = 0;

@action("add")

add = () => {

this.count = this.count + 1;

};

@action("reduce")

reduce = () => {

this.count = this.count - 1;

};

}

export default new Store();

index.js

import { Provider } from "mobx-react";

import Store from "./store";

// ...

ReactDOM.render(

<Provider store={Store}>

<Router history={createBrowserHistory()}>

<Route path="/" component={App} />

<Route path="/about" component={About} />

</Router>

</Provider>,

document.getElementById("root")

);

src/App.jsx

import React, { Component } from "react";

import { observer, inject } from "mobx-react";

@inject("store")

@observer

class App extends Component {

render() {

return (

<div>

<div>{this.props.store.count}</div>

<button onClick={this.props.store.add}>add</button>

<button onClick={this.props.store.reduce}>reduce</button>

</div>

);

}

}

export default App;

Ant Design

安装依赖

$ npm install antd babel-plugin-import --save

.babelrc

{

// ...

"plugins": [

[

"import",

{

"libraryName": "antd",

"libraryDirectory": "es",

"style": true

}

]

]

}

src/App.jsx

// ...

import { DatePicker } from "antd";

import "antd/dist/antd.css";

@inject("store")

@observer

class App extends Component {

render() {

return (

<div>

<DatePicker />

</div>

);

}

}

export default App;

TypeScript

安装依赖

$ npm install typescript @babel/preset-typescript --save-dev

.babelrc

{

"presets": [

// ...

"@babel/preset-typescript"

]

}

tsconfig.json

在根目录下,新增 tsconfig.json 文件:

{

"compilerOptions": {

"emitDecoratorMetadata": true,

"experimentalDecorators": true,

"target": "ES5",

"allowSyntheticDefaultImports": true,

"strict": true,

"forceConsistentCasingInFileNames": true,

"allowJs": true,

"outDir": "./dist/",

"esModuleInterop": true,

"noImplicitAny": false,

"sourceMap": true,

"module": "esnext",

"moduleResolution": "node",

"isolatedModules": true,

"importHelpers": true,

"lib": ["esnext", "dom", "dom.iterable"],

"skipLibCheck": true,

"jsx": "react",

"typeRoots": ["node", "node_modules/@types"],

"rootDirs": ["./src"],

"baseUrl": "./src"

},

"include": ["./src/**/*"],

"exclude": ["node_modules"]

}

src/App.jsx

更换文件后缀 App.jsx -> App.tsx

import React, { Component } from "react";

import { observer, inject } from "mobx-react";

import { DatePicker } from "antd";

import "antd/dist/antd.css";

@inject("store")

@observer

class App extends Component {

props: any;

render() {

return (

<div>

<DatePicker />

<div>{this.props.store.count}</div>

<button onClick={this.props.store.add}>add</button>

<button onClick={this.props.store.reduce}>reduce</button>

</div>

);

}

}

export default App;

代码规范

代码校验、代码格式化、Git 提交前校验、Vscode配置、编译校验

ESLint

安装依赖

$ npm install @typescript-eslint/parser eslint eslint-plugin-standard @typescript-eslint/parser @typescript-eslint/eslint-plugin eslint-plugin-promise  --save-dev

.eslintrc.js

在根目录下,新增 .eslintrc.js 文件:

module.exports = {

extends: ["eslint:recommended", "plugin:react/recommended"],

env: {

browser: true,

commonjs: true,

es6: true,

},

globals: {

$: true,

process: true,

__dirname: true,

},

parser: "@typescript-eslint/parser",

parserOptions: {

ecmaFeatures: {

jsx: true,

modules: true,

},

sourceType: "module",

ecmaVersion: 6,

},

plugins: ["react", "standard", "promise", "@typescript-eslint"],

settings: {

"import/ignore": ["node_modules"],

react: {

version: "latest",

},

},

rules: {

quotes: [2, "single"],

"no-console": 0,

"no-debugger": 1,

"no-var": 1,

semi: ["error", "always"],

"no-irregular-whitespace": 0,

"no-trailing-spaces": 1,

"eol-last": 0,

"no-unused-vars": [

1,

{

vars: "all",

args: "after-used",

},

],

"no-case-declarations": 0,

"no-underscore-dangle": 0,

"no-alert": 2,

"no-lone-blocks": 0,

"no-class-assign": 2,

"no-cond-assign": 2,

"no-const-assign": 2,

"no-delete-var": 2,

"no-dupe-keys": 2,

"use-isnan": 2,

"no-duplicate-case": 2,

"no-dupe-args": 2,

"no-empty": 2,

"no-func-assign": 2,

"no-invalid-this": 0,

"no-redeclare": 2,

"no-spaced-func": 2,

"no-this-before-super": 0,

"no-undef": 2,

"no-return-assign": 0,

"no-script-url": 2,

"no-use-before-define": 2,

"no-extra-boolean-cast": 0,

"no-unreachable": 1,

"comma-dangle": 2,

"no-mixed-spaces-and-tabs": 2,

"prefer-arrow-callback": 0,

"arrow-parens": 0,

"arrow-spacing": 0,

camelcase: 0,

"jsx-quotes": [1, "prefer-double"],

"react/display-name": 0,

"react/forbid-prop-types": [

2,

{

forbid: ["any"],

},

],

"react/jsx-boolean-value": 0,

"react/jsx-closing-bracket-location": 1,

"react/jsx-curly-spacing": [

2,

{

when: "never",

children: true,

},

],

"react/jsx-indent": ["error", 4],

"react/jsx-key": 2,

"react/jsx-no-bind": 0,

"react/jsx-no-duplicate-props": 2,

"react/jsx-no-literals": 0,

"react/jsx-no-undef": 1,

"react/jsx-pascal-case": 0,

"react/jsx-sort-props": 0,

"react/jsx-uses-react": 1,

"react/jsx-uses-vars": 2,

"react/no-danger": 0,

"react/no-did-mount-set-state": 0,

"react/no-did-update-set-state": 0,

"react/no-direct-mutation-state": 2,

"react/no-multi-comp": 0,

"react/no-set-state": 0,

"react/no-unknown-property": 2,

"react/prefer-es6-class": 2,

"react/prop-types": 0,

"react/react-in-jsx-scope": 2,

"react/self-closing-comp": 0,

"react/sort-comp": 0,

"react/no-array-index-key": 0,

"react/no-deprecated": 1,

"react/jsx-equals-spacing": 2,

},

};

.eslintignore

在根目录下,新增 .eslintignore 文件:

src/assets

.vscode

在根目录下新增 .vscode 文件夹,然后新增 .vscode/settings.json

{

"eslint.validate": [

"javascript",

"javascriptreact",

"typescript",

"typescriptreact"

]

}

Perttier

安装依赖

$ npm install prettier --save-dev

prettier.config.js

在根目录下,新增 prettier.config.js 文件:

module.exports = {

// 一行最多 100 字符

printWidth: 100,

// 使用 4 个空格缩进

tabWidth: 4,

// 不使用缩进符,而使用空格

useTabs: false,

// 行尾需要有分号

semi: true,

// 使用单引号

singleQuote: true,

// 对象的 key 仅在必要时用引号

quoteProps: 'as-needed',

// jsx 不使用单引号,而使用双引号

jsxSingleQuote: false,

// 末尾不需要逗号

trailingComma: 'none',

// 大括号内的首尾需要空格

bracketSpacing: true,

// jsx 标签的反尖括号需要换行

jsxBracketSameLine: false,

// 箭头函数,只有一个参数的时候,也需要括号

arrowParens: 'avoid',

// 每个文件格式化的范围是文件的全部内容

rangeStart: 0,

rangeEnd: Infinity,

// 不需要写文件开头的 @prettier

requirePragma: false,

// 不需要自动在文件开头插入 @prettier

insertPragma: false,

// 使用默认的折行标准

proseWrap: 'preserve',

// 根据显示样式决定 html 要不要折行

htmlWhitespaceSensitivity: 'css',

// 换行符使用 lf

endOfLine: 'lf'

};

stylelint

安装依赖

$ npm install stylelint stylelint-config-standard stylelint-config-prettier --save-dev

stylelint.config.js

在根目录下,新增 stylelint.config.js 文件:

module.exports = {

extends: ['stylelint-config-standard', 'stylelint-config-prettier'],

ignoreFiles: [

'**/*.ts',

'**/*.tsx',

'**/*.png',

'**/*.jpg',

'**/*.jpeg',

'**/*.gif',

'**/*.mp3',

'**/*.json'

],

rules: {

'at-rule-no-unknown': [

true,

{

ignoreAtRules: ['extends', 'ignores']

}

],

indentation: 4,

'number-leading-zero': null,

'unit-allowed-list': ['em', 'rem', 's', 'px', 'deg', 'all', 'vh', '%'],

'no-eol-whitespace': [

true,

{

ignore: 'empty-lines'

}

],

'declaration-block-trailing-semicolon': 'always',

'selector-pseudo-class-no-unknown': [

true,

{

ignorePseudoClasses: ['global']

}

],

'block-closing-brace-newline-after': 'always',

'declaration-block-semicolon-newline-after': 'always',

'no-descending-specificity': null,

'selector-list-comma-newline-after': 'always',

'selector-pseudo-element-colon-notation': 'single'

}

};

lint-staged、pre-commit

安装依赖

$ npm install lint-staged prettier eslint pre-commit --save-dev

package.json

{

// ...

"scripts": {

"lint:tsx": "eslint --ext .tsx src && eslint --ext .ts src",

"lint:css": "stylelint --aei .less .css src",

"precommit": "lint-staged",

"precommit-msg": "echo 'Pre-commit checks...' && exit 0"

},

"pre-commit": [

"precommit",

"precommit-msg"

],

"lint-staged": {

"*.{js,jsx,ts,tsx}": [

"eslint --fix",

"prettier --write",

"git add"

],

"*.{css,less}": [

"stylelint --fix",

"prettier --write",

"git add"

]

}

}

eslint-webpack-plugin

安装依赖

$ npm install eslint-webpack-plugin --save-dev

script/webpack.config.js

const ESLintPlugin = require('eslint-webpack-plugin');

module.exports = {

// ...

plugins: [new ESLintPlugin()],

};

总结

搭建这个的过程,也是遇到了不少坑,收获也是蛮多的,希望这个教程能够帮助更多的同学,少采点坑,完整的 React 开发环境可以看这个tristana,求点赞,求关注!

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